Metallurgy and Metallurgical Analysis
Metallurgy specifically focuses on the testing, characterization, and analysis of metallic materials and components. Thanks to the unique characteristics of metallic materials, metal parts can be analyzed in a way that reveals their grain structure and microscopic properties. This information can be used to compare to known conditions and you can reveal processing history just by polishing a scrap of metal!
Metallurgical analysis also involves Fractography, where the surface patterns of a failed area is analyzed to determine the mode and mechanism of failure.